tech In Governance

Useful Links

Microsoft Canada Opens Up to Help Fuel Local App Ecosystem in Vancouver

Improving Governance and Citizen Participation: New Media Tools in a New Political Landscape

Using Technology to Increase Citizen Participation in Government: The Use of Models and Simulation

The Internet and Increased Citizen Participation in Government

How technology can make government better, Democracy stronger, and citizens more powerful

Sustainable Governance Indicators 2009

Technology and Transparency – CommGAP

Citizen Participation in National Governance
The role of civil society in devising and implementing anti-corruption strategies

Definition of Terms


English-speakers sometimes confuse the term governance with government.

The Worldwide Governance Indicators project of the World Bank defines governance as:

“The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This considers the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies and the respect of citizens and the state of the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them”.

An alternate definition sees governance as

“The use of institutions, structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy”

Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the "proper functioning of institutions and their acceptance by the public" (legitimacy). And it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation) - UNDP


Participation refers to the involvement of citizens in the development process. Beneficiaries and groups affected by projects or other development interventions need to participate so that the government can make informed choices with respect to their needs, and social groups can protect their rights - Asia Development Bank

Citizen participation can be defined in many ways. Traditionally, it concerns voluntary or coerced participation in local, state and national issues that involve governmental decision-making. The term “coercion” does not imply the use of force or violence – M. Milkakovich

Participatory Governance focuses on deepening democratic engagement through the participation of citizens in the processes of governance with the state. The idea is that citizens should play a more direct role in public decision-making or at least engage more deeply with political issues. Government officials should also be responsive to this kind of engagement. In practice, Participatory Governance can supplement the roles of citizens as voters or as watchdogs through more direct forms of involvement – Institute of Developmental Studies


a legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized:

an inhabitant of a particular town or city:

- Oxford Dictionary

A citizen is a person with membership in a social, political or national community.

With the rise of the nation-state, citizenship is most closely identified with being a member of a particular nation or country. Citizenship is typically conferred based on ethnicity & ancestry or based on whether you were born in the territory. It is possible to marry into new citizenship.

The concept of citizenship has long acquired the connotation of a bundle of rights - primarily, political participation in the life of a community, the right to vote, and the right to receive certain protection from the community - as well as obligations. Citizenship connoted that all men were free and equal. - Virginia Leary (Citizenship, Human Rights and Diversity)

Justice in the life and conduct of the State is possible only as first it resides in the hearts and souls of the citizens - Plato.